Acquisition of Second Language
The process of acquiring the second language includes five steps such as Pre-production, Early production, Speech emergence, Intermediate Fluency, and Advanced Fluency. In this article, our experts from assignment help will explain Second Language Acquisition.
Stage 1: Pre-production is a silent period and, in this stage, a language learner uses 500 words in his/her receptive vocabulary without speaking. Few students use to repeat everything they listen and in doing so, they are parroting instead of producing language. In this stage, the new learners listen attentively and often use to copy new words from the blackboard. This stage of acquiring a second language makes them capable of responding to pictures as well as other visuals. Moreover, they become able to duplicate and understand movements and gestures to show their comprehension.
Stage 2: Early production stage includes the followings:
· Asking yes/no as well as either/or questions.
· Accepting one/two-word responses.
· Giving learners the opportunity of participating in some class activities.
· Using pictures to support their questions.
· Modifying content information.
· Building vocabulary by using pictures or other visuals.
· Providing listening activities.
· Simplifying the materials of content that are required to use and focusing on the key concepts and vocabulary.
· Supporting the learning process with graphs and charts, and graphic organisers.
Successful completion of this stage assists a student to produce one/two-word responses, use familiar phrases and key-words along with present-tense verbs.
Stage 3: Speech emergence comprised of the following tasks:
· Speaking out easy to understand stories phonetically.
· Reading short and modified texts related to content.
· Completing graphic organisers by using word banks.
· Understanding as well as answering questions about graphs and charts.
· Matching vocabulary words with definitions.
· Participate in duet, pair and choral reading activities.
· Writing and illustrating riddles.
· Understanding teacher explanations along with two-step directions.
· Composing brief stories based on personal experience.
· Writing dialogue journals.
This stage helps students to have good comprehension, produce simple and understandable sentences. Moreover, in this stage students make pronunciation and grammar errors and use to misunderstand jokes frequently.
Stage 4: Intermediate fluency is a stage of language learning where the learner uses gain excellent comprehension, whereas makes some grammatical mistakes while communicating in oral and written form. The learners this stage have around 6000 active vocabularies and they start using complex sentences while speaking as well as writing and are intending to express their opinions and share thoughts. Comprehension of literature along with the content of social studies is increasing. At intermediate fluency stage, learners found using strategies they have adopted from the native language they learned during their childhood for learning content in the second language. In this stage, students try to share their thoughts and opinion by using complex sentence structure whereas many of them use to translate written assignments or projects from their native language. In this stage, they become capable of understanding more complex sentences and concepts.
Stage 5: Advanced Fluency, in this stage of acquiring the second language, students become able to achieve proficiency in the cognitive academic language in the second language. Their ability to perform in the content area-oriented learning enhances in this stage. Furthermore, in this stage, the students have a near-native speech level. This is the final stage of acquiring the second language and to reach this stage, every student needs to get proper assistance and support from teachers, which is very crucial in acquiring a second language successfully.
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